Texas Today


Over the past few decades, Texas has experienced rapid and continued population growth, with an increase of 4.3 million from 2000 to 2010, and an increase of 4 million from 2010 to 2020.  This rate of population growth outpaces many other states; for that reason, Texas gained four seats in the U.S. House of Representatives following the 2010 Census and an additional two seats following the 2020 Census.

Today, Texas is the second most populated state in the United States, with a population of over 29.1 million people, of which:

  • 6.9% are under 5 years of age, 25.5% are under 18 years of age, and 12.9% are 65 years of age or older;
  • 50.3% are female
  • 41.2% are white, 39.7% are Hispanic or Latino, 12.9% are Black or African American, 5.2% are Asian, 1.0% are American Indian or Alaskan Native, 0.1% are Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, and 2.1% are two or more races (Texas is a majority-minority state because less than 50% of the population are non-Hispanic white persons)
  • 17% were foreign-born persons

While there are still many rural areas in Texas, its population is increasingly residing in urban areas.  Today, three of the largest 10 cities in the United States are in Texas: Houston (#4, with a population of nearly 2.4 million); San Antonio (#7, with a population of nearly 1.6 million); and Dallas (#9, with a population of about 1.4 million).

Most Texans graduate high school (83.7% of persons 25 years of age or older); however, significantly fewer graduate college with a four-year degree (29.9% of persons 25 years of age or older).

The median household income in Texas in 2019 was $61,874, and the per capita income (average individual income) was $31,277; 13.6% were in poverty.  That same year, 64.2% of persons 16 years of age or older were employed; among females, 57.8% of persons 16 years of age or older were employed.

For more statistics about Texas, check out the U.S. Census’s Texas QuickFacts page.

Ideological Distribution

Most people in the U.S. fall into two ideologies:

  • Conservatives, which generally favor limited government in social and/or economic life, based on the belief that a big government can only infringe on our individual, personal, and economic rights (a government is best that governs least); conservative ideology is generally status-quo-oriented
  • liberals, which generally views government action as necessary to ensure people are as free as possible and believe government should protect individual liberties and rights and provide social services based on equality; liberal ideology tends to view change as progressive and, at times, necessary for the greater good of society

Texas is considered a “center-right” state.  Individualistic and traditionalistic cultural elements have combined to produce conservatism in our government.  Random sample polls of registered voters have supported this statement by consistently showing that most Texans who are registered to vote currently identify themselves as moderates or conservatives.

This does not imply, however, that all Texans are conservative, nor does it imply that all conservative Texans share the same beliefs regarding government and politics.  Indeed, the Threads of Texas project identified seven different segments of Texans that differ when it comes to “their orientation and emotion towards change and their understanding of what it means to be Texan” (Ramsey, 2021):

  • Lone Star Progressives: liberal, highly engaged, alienated, critical, and empathetic
  • Civic Pragmatists: engaged, civic-minded, pragmatic, rational, and measured
  • Rising Mavericks: younger, diverse, proud, critical, multifaceted, and politically informed
  • Apolitical Providers: lower income, equality-focused, detached, apprehensive, and apolitical
  • Die-hard Texans: proud, Texan-centered, optimistic, traditional, culturally connected, and politically disengaged
  • Texas Faithful: patriotic, traditional, faith-oriented, skeptical, and conspiratorial
  • Heritage Defenders: white, conservative, partisan, libertarian, and embattled


Texas has transitioned over time from an economy based largely on agricultural products, to one dominated by the oil industry, to the highly diversified economy that exists in the state today.

During Rick Perry’s time as governor, many businesses, including many companies in the automotive manufacturing and information technology industries, have opened new locations and/or relocated their corporate headquarters to Texas due to low taxes, generous subsidies, low regulations, and a large workforce.  This trend has continued during Greg Abbott’s governorship — Tesla’s decision to construct the Gigafactory automotive manufacturing facility in Austin (and their more plans to construct the “Bobcat Project” facility next to the Gigafactory) is one of many, many examples of businesses choosing to expand their operations within our state.

Today, Texas’s GDP (gross domestic product) is larger than that of some countries.  Texas creates one out of every four jobs in the U.S. (with greater job creation than California, the most populated state).  Texas also leads in exports; indeed, the state “has always been an export-based economy, with first cotton, then energy and now high-tech linking it to global markets” (The future is – Texas; Texas, 2002)